From novice to know-how: evaluating potential companies beyond capital expenditure, total revenue, cash equivalents, total assets and total liabilities.
Before you take the plunge and invest, you need to know which financial metrics may help you make informed decisions.
There are hundreds of company metrics that can be examined, but first, you should understand the basics:
Beyond these basic financial metrics, other factors every investor should examine for each company include:
The P/E Ratio is a measure of the market value of a stock compared to the company's earnings. It tells you what other investors (the market) are willing to pay for a stock right now. If the P/E is high, this could indicate that the price of the stock is overvalued, and therefore not a good investment at this time. And the reverse may be true. However, don’t forget to investigate how a particular company is valued compared to other firms within the same sector. The big picture matters.
The P/B Ratio is another stick to measure whether a stock is potentially over or undervalued. It’s determined by comparing a company’s net assets to the price of all the outstanding shares.
Simply put, it’s the ratio of the market value of a company's stock (what investors are willing to pay right now) and its book value (a more conservative measure of a company's worth). Some investors like to invest in companies with a low market value in comparison to their book value in cases where they believe a stock is undervalued and its market value is therefore likely to increase.
The D/E Ratio tells investors how much debt a company has borrowed to finance its business. Too much debt is obviously risky, but remember that the D/E Ratio can vary from sector to sector, and a high D/E doesn’t indicate in every case whether a company is well-run or not. Debt is definitely sometimes required when a company expands or seeks to enter existing or additional markets with new products or services.
Free Cash Flow
FCF is a measure of how much cash a company generates from its business. It tells us whether a company has the cash, after paying operational and capital expenses, to pay its shareholders. If a company’s FCF is rising, its sales could be rising or its costs diminishing, or both. If a stock price seems low and free cash flow is on the rise, many investors see this as an indication that the stock value will increase.
Handle with care: evaluating companies that haven’t turned a profit yet
Determining the potential investment opportunity for firms that haven’t made a profit is very different from evaluating firms that are already making money.
There are other financial metrics to look at for companies that haven’t yet turned a profit, but potential investors should also do their best to evaluate “softer” metrics such as:
By understanding these and other financial metrics, both new and experienced investors can make the wisest decisions possible. To help make data discovery easier, use TMXMoney.com for current market, index and company information for Toronto Stock Exchange and TSX Venture Exchange, and US markets.
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